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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

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158                                        FLORA   1NDJCA.
is usually a hard clay, and water is only procurable at great
depths. East of the Satlej a sandy desert extends from Sirwi
as tar as Marwar and the Run of Kach. The streams which
descend from the Himalaya and the western face of the Ara-
walj hills are all dissipated before they can mingle their
waters with the Satlcj, and below Bahawalpur the desert ad-
vances close to tlic river.
The vegetation of the Punjab varies with the climate* In
the southern part of the province, where little or no rain falls,
the flora is almost identical with that of Sindh; but as the la-
titude increases and the mean temperature, and especially the
winter temperature, diminishes, we find a gradual increase of
plants characteristic of the Mediterranean flora, which is fully
represented on the mountains of Afghanistan. These are,
however, chiefly winter-flowering annuals, such as GoldbacJiia
hevlgata, Frank&ilu pultiurulvnta, tfiterie co/tlca, Arcnana &*/%
'/ri/llifolia, JSnphorbla Helioscoyhi, Carth(wni$ Qxyacanthay Ve-
rwrica agrextis, Poa amma, and their number is not eonsidor-
ublc. AlLtho shrubby plants which give the character to the
vegetation sire the same as those of Sindh. The extensive
tracts of low and scattered tree-jungle which .occupy the dry
clay soil at a little distance from the river, even further to the
north and east than Lahore and Firozpur, consist chiefly of Gay~
parts aphylla, Acacia Arabica and kucophlwa, Prosopis #jrici»
flora, Ztzyphns Lotus, and Salvador a decides (SJndica, Itoyle).
Cocadus Lc&ba, a Senegal, Egyptian, aixd Sindh species, climbs
over the trees. Papulus JS-uirfiralica forms thickets along the
Satlej, as far cast as Bahawulpur, along with Tamarix Galtica,
which, however, is generally diffused over India. Berthelotia
Iwweolata, a low shrubby plant, which is widely diflfased over
the drier parts of Asia and Africa, covers large tracts, either
quite alone or interspersed with other plants.
Nearer to the Himalaya, as the climate becomes moister,
the vegetation changes, the plants of the desert giving place
to those of the (jangetic plain. At Ludiana awl Jalnndhar
the shrubby vegetation IP quite changed Butea frondosa